Science Article Teaching Mach No, Supersonic, Transonic, Hypersonic Speed For Kids & Elders.

In the previous article we learned about the "Speed Of Sound" as a lesson of physics for the kids and elders. Today we will have a little discussion about the Mach Numbers and will also see, where it is getting used in the different names of flights like "Supersonic, Transonic and Hypersonic".

Now, as we know that the Sound can travel from on point to another, through different mediums, like air, water and iron etc. We also understood that the sound is having different speeds in different mediums.

Speed of sound in air is 1,236 Kilometres per Hour (in dry air at 20 °C / 68 °F) or 343.2 Metres per Second or 1,126 ft/s or 768 mph. Let’s say speed of sound in some other simple words; Sound travels 1 Kilometer in 3 Seconds or approx. 1 mile in 5 seconds. Read More About The Speed Of Sound Visit Here .

What Is Mach Number ?

As we learned about the sound and it’s speed in our last Science Article For Kids ; the word "Mach Number" comes into the picture automatically. The Speed of Sound and the Mach Number / 1M is related to each other.

You may be knowing that an aeroplanes are very very faster having lots of speed, from 500 Km/Hr. to 1xxx (thousands) of Km/Hr.

As the speed of the planes are higher it needed to be expressed with some higher units. It was inconvenient to express the higher speed in writing and speech again and again. It become necessary to express some thousands of speed value in 1 unit.

Speed of light is very very very high till date and not at all any object or the plane is comparable near to its speed. Speed of light is approximately "299,792,458 Metres per Second or 2,99,792 Km/Sec."
So their was no point to compare plane or an aircraft speed with the speed of light at all.

The only fix and natural speed remain to compare and make unit or the constant for an air plane or an aircraft is the "Speed of Sound".  Speed of sound is near to the medium and to the top speed of an Aircrafts and the AirPlanes.

So the scientists and engineers decided and studied the science and physics of sound and made it as the speed constant. This speed constant is 1 Mach or Mach Number.FA-18_Hornet_breaking_sound_barrier_(7_July_1999)_(TheZeroLife.Com)

1 Mach = what ?
1 Mach speed of an object or an Airplane is = the speed of sound in dry air at 20°C ; and that is "1,236 km/h or approximately 343 m/s, or 1,125 ft/s, or 768 mph, or 667 knots".

So keep in mind that if anywhere you see written 1 M (Mach) or if anybody asks you what is 1M than simply understand that they are talking about some 1,236 Km/Hr.
Happy ?

Now what is the "Supersonic Speed" ?

Supersonic Speed is the speed near (or exceeding) to the speed of sound i.e. 1M. Supersonic Speed is the speed of an object or an aeroplanes that exceeds the speed of sound that is 1 Mach.
From now keep in mind that, if anybody talks about the Supersonic Speed simply understand that they are talking about the speed of sound or 1M.

Let’s talk little about the Transonic Speed :

In an aeronautics or in an aeroplanes, transonic speed refers to the condition of the flight in which a range of velocities of airflow around the surrounding of the object which are concurrently below and above the speed of sound that is in the range of 0.8 Mach to 1 Mach; that is between 965 to 1236 km/h .
Or you can also say that the flight during which only some parts of the air around an object or an airplane, such as the ends of rotor blades, reach supersonic speeds are called transonic. This occurs typically somewhere between Mach 0.8 and Mach 1.

Wikipedia Says :
"Transonic speeds can also occur at the tips of rotor blades of helicopters and aircraft. However, as this puts severe, unequal stresses on the rotor blade, it is avoided and may lead to dangerous accidents if it occurs. It is one of the limiting factors to the size of rotors, and also to the forward speeds of helicopters (as this speed is added to the forward-sweeping (leading) side of the rotor, thus possibly causing localized transonic)."

What is Hypersonic Speed :
In brief you understand that the speed of an object or an aeroplanes greater than five times the speed of sound are known as Hypersonic Speed.
Hypersonic Speed = Greater than 5 M (Mach).

Below table will solve all your problems about Subsonic, Transonic, Sonic, Hypersonic and High-Hypersonic, the below table represents the flight speed name and its relation with the Mach No., just multiply the Mach No. with the speed of sound i.e. 1236 Km/Hr. and you will get the speed in Km/Hr. at that particular speed.

Regime Subsonic Transonic Sonic Supersonic Hypersonic HighHypersonic
Mach No. <1.0 0.8 – 1.2 1.0 1.2 – 5.0 5.0 – 10.0 > 10.0

Ex. Lets see about Hypersonic, Hypersonic has Mach of 5 and greater. so 5 x 1236 Km/Hr. = 6180 Km/Hr. It means that we will any speed as a Hypersonic Speed when it will cross or will be more than 6180 Km/Hr.

Ok friends I think it is enough for todays Science & Technology Article. This physics or science article will be beneficial and helpful for all i.e. kids, elders, hobbyists, engineers and college going students. Ref : Wikipedia Supersonic.

What we learned in this science article today is, Mach Number, Unite of Speed, and some technical or aeronautical terms like "Supersonic Speed, Transonic Speed, and Hypersonic Speed".

Also Learn Speed Of Sound A Lesson Of Physics For Kids.

Share This Science, Technology And Physics Article With Your Friends, Family and Teachers And Spread The Knowledge. By- Himanshu Kumar Singh.